Name of the Element: The Art of Çini-Making
Other Names of the Element: Çinicilik,Geleneksel Çini Sanatı Ustalığı, Kâşîcilik, Sırça ustalığı, Evanî ustalığı
Inventory Number: 01.0029
First Date of Inventory: 13/03/2013
Date of Update: 14/12/2015
City/Cities Submitting the Inventory Form: Kütahya, Bursa, Aksaray, Edirne.
I- DESCRIPTIVE INFORMATION ABOUT THE ELEMENT
1- Brief Description of the Element:
Glazed tile and ceramic household stuffs or wallboards of several colours and motifs made by firing the pulped clay soil are called “çini”. Çini-making (Çinicilik) means the craftsmanship shaped around traditional Turkish art of çini for the centuries with its own unique production and adornment techniques.
In çini adornments generally geometric shapes, plants and animal figures symbolizing cosmic thoughts and beliefs are used in different colours. Using red, cobalt blue, turquoise and green on white or navy blue background is the characteristic feature of traditional çinis.
Craftspeople of Çini-making have been conveyed through master-apprentice relation to their traditional productions called “reçete” (prescriptions) which is knowledge about nature and adornment techniques, throughout centuries.
The basic element that characterizes and safeguards the art of çini is traditional craftsmanship manifested in the applications and the knowledge transmitted to next generations about the supply of the raw material, preparation of dyes, production and usage of the tools, firing processes, adornment techniques and aesthetics.
2- Geographical Distribution of the Element:
There are settlements where çini-making (çinicilik) stands out with distinctive production in Turkey. This settlements are Kütahya, Bursa city’s İznik district and Çanakkale.
Moreover, there are many çini craftspeople all over Turkey especially in İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir, Edirne, Tokat, Aksaray, Nevşehir.
3- Social and Cultural Functions of the Element:
The element has an important cultural function in transmitting to the next generations the knowledge and skills of art of çini, the practices about nature and universe, aesthetic manners, cuisine culture, the space perception in which social applications, oral traditions and religious rituals are kept.
Colours, symbols and allegorical narratives in the patterns of çini that are used as household stuff in daily life and that appear frequently in public and religious buildings. These patterns have reflected the beliefs, world views, life styles, perception of people in an artistic and subliminal way from past to present. Thus, çini-making contribute to strengthening the cultural bond between past and present and transmitting the cultural continuity and sense of identity to the future.
Art of Çini used for adornment on the public and religious building fronts; is an important part of the city identity for Kütahya, İznik and Çanakkale. Moreover, art of çini is a special part of the city image in terms of giving characteristics to symbolic buildings in big cities like Antalya, Bursa, Erzurum, Konya, Kayseri, Sivas and İstanbul.
4- ICH Domain(s) of the Element:
Oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage
Social practices, rituals and festive events
Knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe ü
Traditional craftsmanship ü
II- PRACTITIONERS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF ELEMENT:
1- The Practitioners and representatives of Element:
The relevant community of the element are craftspeople, trainers, individuals personally interested in the art of çini and related NGOs.
Knowledge, techniques, prescriptions, rituals and ethical manners of the art of çini-making have been transmit generation to generation through master-apprentice/parent-child relation for the centuries.
It’s estimated that more than 5000 çini craftspeople living in Turkey. In çini workshops there are craftspeople like “çarkçı” shaping çini, “tahrirci” making the decorations, dying the interior parts of the patterns and adornments, “zımparacı and rötuşçu” rubbing and undercoating the biscuit, “fırıncı” firing çini, foremen and apprentices who are very effective in transmission and application of the tradition.
Çini workshops are well-known cultural places to maintain the common memory about the element. According to the notification of NGOs; there are 458 active çini workshops in Kütahya, 40 in İznik, 94 in Nevşehir and 12 in Çanakkale in 2015. Furthermore, it’s estimated that nearly 25,000 people bearing and practicing the element at home number across Turkey.
In courses Public Education Centers of Ministry of National Education and Metropolitan Municipalities like İstanbul, Edirne, Ankara, İzmir, Bursa, Antalya, Diyarbakır, Kayseri, Konya and local municipalities across Turkey, çini-making courses and çini workshops are contribute transmit the knowledge and skills related with the element to larger masses.
77 practitioner have been registered to Folk Culture Information and Documentation Center in Ministry of Culture and Tourism and received identification cards as ICH bearers under Regulation of Operational Directives for Identification and Registration of Bearers and Practitioners of ICH.
2- NGO’s Related to the Element:
Unsurla ilgili topluluk ve bireyler, yerel sivil toplum kuruluşları vasıtasıyla örgütlenmişlerdir. Unsurla ilgili Kütahya’da 4, Bursa/İznik’te 2 yerel Sivil Toplum Kuruluşu bulunmaktadır:
Assemblies and individuals are organized through local NGOs. There are 4 local NGOs in Kütahya and 2 in İznik directly related of the element.
Related NGOs of the element in Kütahya:
1- Kütahya Chamber of Ceramists Photographers and Craft
Addresses: Cumhuriyet Mh. Esnaf Cd. Metem Tesisleri Kat:2/Kütahya
Phone: +90274 2713243 Fax: +90274 2717742
2-Association of Kütahya Çini and Ceramics Manufacturers and Craftspeople
Addresses: Çiniciler Çarşısı 2 nolu Çarşı No.100 / Kütahya
Phone: +90274 231 83 52 Fax: +902742318307
3-Association of Site Building for Kütahya Tiles-Ceramics Ateliers
Addresses: Osmangazi mah. Hekim Sinan Bulvarı Doç.Dr. Faruk Şahin Sokak, No.2/ Kütahya
Phone: +90274 225 18 01 Fax: +90274 225 18 01
4-Association of Developing of Culture and Art and Promotion of Turkey’s Cultural Values
Addresses: Fuat paşa Cad. No:18 Sarı Konak Kültür ve Sanatevi/ Kütahya
Phone: +90274 216 33 04 Fax: -
Related NGOs of the element in Bursa/İznik:
5- Association of Research and Development of İznik Tiles and Ceramics
Addresses: F.Murat Hamamı Çini Çarşısı No: 13 İznik/Bursa
Phone: +905356321909 Fax: -
6- İznik Education and Training Foundation
Addresses: Şube- Sahil Yolu Vakıf Sokak. No:13 İznik/Bursa. Merkez- Etiler Mah. Cengiz Topel Cad. Tuğcular Sok. Beşiktaş/İstanbul
Phone: +90 0212 287 32 43 / +90224757 60 25 Fax: +90 212 287 32 47
3- Universities and Research Instıtutes Related to the Element:
Across the country there are 10 Vocational High Schools providing two-year degree on art of çini, 37 Fine Arts Faculty providing education on traditional Turkish handicraft including art of çini and 2 Antique Çini Repair Department.
Fine Arts Faculties Providing Education on Traditional Turkish Handicraft Including Art of Çini
1. ABANT İZZET BAYSAL ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
2. AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
3. AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
4. ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
5. ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
6. ATILIM ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
7. BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
8. BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR TASARIM VE MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ
9. BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR TASARIM VE MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ
10. CUMHURİYET ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
11. ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
12. ÇANKIRI KARATEKİN ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
13. DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
14. DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
15. EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR
16. ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
17. GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
18. HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
19. KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
20. KOCAELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
21. KTO KARATAY ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
22. MARDİN ARTUKLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
23. MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
24. MERSİN ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
25. MİMAR SİNAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
26. MUSTAFA KEMAL ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
27. NEVŞEHİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
28. NİĞDE ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
29. SAKARYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
30. SELÇUK ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
31. SITKI KOÇMAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
32. SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
33. TOROS ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
34. TRAKYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
35. ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
36. UŞAK ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
37. YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ: GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ
4- Living Human Treasures about the Element:
· Sıtkı Olçar (1948-2010), Year of the Declaration: 2008, Inventory No: 02.006 http://aregem.kulturturizm.gov.tr/TR,12934/sitki-olcar-1948-2010.html
· Mehmet Gürsoy, Year of the Declaration: 2009, Inventory No: 02.012
III- SAFEGUARDING MEASURES FOR THE ELEMENT:
1- Past and Current Efforts on the Safeguarding of the Element:
üÇini-making courses in Public Education Centers and Workshops of
Municipalities were opened with self-development and rehabilitation purposes.
Courses by çini craftspeople from across Turkey are held either in their own workshops or in state common education centres. Craftsmen accept successful students as their apprentices or foremen.
ü“Geographical Registration Mark” for İznik and Kütahya çinis was inscribed with the initiative of the Ministry of Customs and Trade. Thus, the execution of çini-making by çini craftspeople in İznik and Kütahya, the patterns, stages of the production and baking methods were recorded in detail.
üTo encourage revival of İznik çinis, the year 1989 was accepted as “International İznik Çini Year”.
üKonya Karatay Madrasa was reopened as “Çini Works Museum” to visit in 1955. Yakup Bey Workhouse, an important historical building in Kütahya dated 1441, was turned into “Çini Museum” after its restoration in 1999.
üSeveral TV/radio programmes, documentaries and books supported by governmental institutions were published both in the country and abroad to introduce çini-making and raise social awareness.
üÇini craftsmen founded local NGOs to safeguard the element and overcome vocational problems.
üScientific and experimental researches were conducted by academicians and çini craftsmen to determine colour segments used in çini-making in the past. For example, famous “the colour of coralline” used in İznik çini-making 300 years ago was re-found.
üCatalogue research about çini works in the private museums and collections in the country and abroad was carried out. üInternational symposiums were held in Kütahya in 1986 “I.International Congress of Turkish Tiles and Ceramics”, in 1998 “International Symposium of the Kütahya Tiles”, in 2010 “III. International Symposium Kütahya Tiles and II. Eurasia Ceramic Congress”
üInternational Iznik Symposium was held in Iznik on 05-07 September 2005.
2- Action Plan for Safeguarding of the Element
Name of the Safeguarding Plan: “Strategic Plan for Safeguarding and Monitoring of Çini-Making
Date of Preparation and Adoption: 23-24 January 2014
Strategical Aims of the Plan:
Strategic Aim 1: Safeguarding of çini-making, transmission to the next generations, raising the visibility and awareness about the element
Strategic Aim 2: Contributing to Creativity, Respect for Cultural Diversity and the Development of Intercultural Dialogue.
Strategic Aim 3: Impact Analysis of Çini Craftsmanship of the Processes Inscription on the Representative List
IV- PUBLICATIONS, RESEARCHES AND INFORMATIONS ABOUT THE ELEMENT
1- Selected Bibliography:
· Altun, Ara. Carswell, John and Öney, Gönül. Turkish Tiles and Ceramics: İznik, Kütahya and Çanakkale, İstanbul: Sadberk Hanim Museum, 1991.
· Aslanapa, Oktay. Anadolu'da Türk Çini ve Keramik Sanatı, İstanbul: 1965.
· Aslanapa, Oktay. Turkish Art And Architecture, London: Faber&Faber Limited, 1971.
· Aslanapa, Oktay. Yetkin, Şerare and Altun, Ara. İznik Çini Fırınları Kazısı, 1981-1988, II. Dönem, İstanbul: 1989.
· Atasoy, Nurhan and Rab, Julian. İznik: The Pottery of Ottoman, Alexandria Press Türkiye Ekonomi Bankası (TEB); London: 1989.
· B. Denny, Walter. İznik: Artistry of Ottoman Ceramics, Thames & Hudson: 2004
· Bilgi, Hülya. Dance of Fire, İstanbul: Sadberk Hanim Museum, 2009.
· Bilgi, Hülya. Kütahya Tiles and Ceramics, İstanbul: Suna ve İnan Kıraç Foundations: 2006.
· Carswell, John. İznik Pottery, Interlink Books: 2006
· Erten, Özlem İnay and Erten Oğuz, Turkish Tiles, İstanbul: Silk Road Publications: 2013
· Frederic Hitzel and Mireille Jacotin, İznik: l'Aventure d'une Collection, Paris: Musee National de la Renaissance; 2005
· Kürkman, Garo. Magic of Clay and Fire: A History of Kütahya Pottery and Potters, İstanbul: Suna ve İnan Kıraç Foundations: 2006.
· Öney, Gönül ve Çobanlı, Zehra. Anadolu'da Türk Devri Çini ve Seramik Sanatı, Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, 2000
· Öney, Gönül. Beylikler Devri Sanatı, XIV.-XV. Yüzyıl (1300-1453), Ankara: 1989.
· Öney, Gönül. Ceramic Tiles In Islamic Architecture, Ada Publication, İstanbul: 1987.
· Öney, Gönül. Turkish Ceramic Tile Art in Anatolia, Tokyo, 1975.
· Öney, Gönül. Türk Çini Sanatı / Turkish Tile Art, İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Bankası Publication, 1976.
· Ribeiro, Maria. İznik Pottery and Tile, Scala Publishers: 2010
· Yetkin, Şerare. Anadolu'da Türk Çini Sanatının Gelişmesi, İstanbul: 1986.
2- Master / Doctoral Theses About the Element:
In last decades; 97 master theses, 13 doctorate theses and 9 Proficiency in Art Theses giving information about patterns, colour, composition and making analysis and assessments about the condition of çini-making in the past and today were written by academicians and students.
Dissertations are available from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/ulusaltezmerkezi/ link.
3- Museums and Cultural Spaces about the Element
· Topkapı Place Museum
· İstanbul Çinili Köşk
· Konya Karatay Madrasa "Today Çini Museum"
· Kütahya Çini Museum
· İstanbul Pera Museum
· İstanbul Sadberkhanım Museum
· Yıldız Çini Fabrika-ı Hümayunu
· İstanbul Rüstempaşa Mosque
· İstanbul Ayasofya I. Mahmut Library
· İstanbul Süleymaniye Mosque
· Bursa Şehzade Mehmet’s Tomb
· Bursa Green Tomb
· İznik Süleyman Paşa Madrasa (Today Tile Making Market Place )
· İznik Nilüfer Hatun Tile Making Market Place
· Kütahya Tile Making Market Place
· Konya Municipality Çini Atelier
· İstanbul Eyüp Municipality Çini Atelier
4- Field Researches Focused on Related Community and Groups
5- Selective Internet Links
V- PARTICIPATION AND CONSENT OF COMMUNITIES AND BEARERS DURING TO THE PREPARATION OF INVENTORY FORMS
The preparation and updating of the inventory form was carried out in accordance with Provincial ICH Boards of Kütahya, Bursa, İstanbul and Edirne, related NGO’s and bearers of the element with their consent and active participation.
Important Note: For any update or adding information for the inventory, please contact with Provincial ICH Boards and Ministry of Culture and Tourism, General Directorate of Research and Training