First Date of Inventory: 13/03/2013
Date of Update: 14/12/2015
City/Cities Submitting the Inventory Form: Kütahya, Bursa, Aksaray, Edirne.
I- DESCRIPTIVE INFORMATION ABOUT THE ELEMENT
1- Brief Description of the Element:
Glazed tile and ceramic household stuffs or wallboards of several colours and motifs made by firing the pulped clay soil are called “çini”. Çini-making (Çinicilik) means the craftsmanship shaped around traditional Turkish art of çini for the centuries with its own unique production and adornment techniques.
In çini adornments generally geometric shapes, plants and animal figures symbolizing cosmic thoughts and beliefs are used in different colours. Using red, cobalt blue, turquoise and green on white or navy blue background is the characteristic feature of traditional çinis.
Craftspeople of Çini-making have been conveyed through master-apprentice relation to their traditional productions called “reçete” (prescriptions) which is knowledge about nature and adornment techniques, throughout centuries.
The basic element that characterizes and safeguards the art of çini is traditional craftsmanship manifested in the applications and the knowledge transmitted to next generations about the supply of the raw material, preparation of dyes, production and usage of the tools, firing processes, adornment techniques and aesthetics.
2- Geographical Distribution of the Element:
There are settlements where çini-making (çinicilik) stands out with distinctive production in Turkey. This settlements are Kütahya, Bursa city’s İznik district and Çanakkale.
Moreover, there are many çini craftspeople all over Turkey especially in İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir, Edirne, Tokat, Aksaray, Nevşehir.
3- Social and Cultural Functions of the Element:
The element has an important cultural function in transmitting to the next generations the knowledge and skills of art of çini, the practices about nature and universe, aesthetic manners, cuisine culture, the space perception in which social applications, oral traditions and religious rituals are kept.
Colours, symbols and allegorical narratives in the patterns of çini that are used as household stuff in daily life and that appear frequently in public and religious buildings. These patterns have reflected the beliefs, world views, life styles, perception of people in an artistic and subliminal way from past to present. Thus, çini-making contribute to strengthening the cultural bond between past and present and transmitting the cultural continuity and sense of identity to the future.
Art of Çini used for adornment on the public and religious building fronts; is an important part of the city identity for Kütahya, İznik and Çanakkale. Moreover, art of çini is a special part of the city image in terms of giving characteristics to symbolic buildings in big cities like Antalya, Bursa, Erzurum, Konya, Kayseri, Sivas and İstanbul.
4- ICH Domain(s) of the Element:
Oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage
Social practices, rituals and festive events
Knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe ü
Traditional craftsmanship ü
II- PRACTITIONERS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF ELEMENT:
1- The Practitioners and representatives of Element:
The relevant community of the element are craftspeople, trainers, individuals personally interested in the art of çini and related NGOs.
Knowledge, techniques, prescriptions, rituals and ethical manners of the art of çini-making have been transmit generation to generation through master-apprentice/parent-child relation for the centuries.
It’s estimated that more than 5000 çini craftspeople living in Turkey. In çini workshops there are craftspeople like “çarkçı” shaping çini, “tahrirci” making the decorations, dying the interior parts of the patterns and adornments, “zımparacı and rötuşçu” rubbing and undercoating the biscuit, “fırıncı” firing çini, foremen and apprentices who are very effective in transmission and application of the tradition.
Çini workshops are well-known cultural places to maintain the common memory about the element. According to the notification of NGOs; there are 458 active çini workshops in Kütahya, 40 in İznik, 94 in Nevşehir and 12 in Çanakkale in 2015. Furthermore, it’s estimated that nearly 25,000 people bearing and practicing the element at home number across Turkey.
In courses Public Education Centers of Ministry of National Education and Metropolitan Municipalities like İstanbul, Edirne, Ankara, İzmir, Bursa, Antalya, Diyarbakır, Kayseri, Konya and local municipalities across Turkey, çini-making courses and çini workshops are contribute transmit the knowledge and skills related with the element to larger masses.
77 practitioner have been registered to Folk Culture Information and Documentation Center in Ministry of Culture and Tourism and received identification cards as ICH bearers under Regulation of Operational Directives for Identification and Registration of Bearers and Practitioners of ICH.
2- NGO’s Related to the Element:
Unsurla ilgili topluluk ve bireyler, yerel sivil toplum kuruluşları vasıtasıyla örgütlenmişlerdir. Unsurla ilgili Kütahya’da 4, Bursa/İznik’te 2 yerel Sivil Toplum Kuruluşu bulunmaktadır:
Assemblies and individuals are organized through local NGOs. There are 4 local NGOs in Kütahya and 2 in İznik directly related of the element.
Related NGOs of the element in Kütahya:
1- Kütahya Chamber of Ceramists Photographers and Craft
Addresses: Cumhuriyet Mh. Esnaf Cd. Metem Tesisleri Kat:2/Kütahya
Phone: +90274 2713243 Fax: +90274 2717742
2-Association of Kütahya Çini and Ceramics Manufacturers and Craftspeople
Addresses: Çiniciler Çarşısı 2 nolu Çarşı No.100 / Kütahya
Phone: +90274 231 83 52 Fax: +902742318307
3-Association of Site Building for Kütahya Tiles-Ceramics Ateliers
Addresses: Osmangazi mah. Hekim Sinan Bulvarı Doç.Dr. Faruk Şahin Sokak, No.2/ Kütahya
Phone: +90274 225 18 01 Fax: +90274 225 18 01
4-Association of Developing of Culture and Art and Promotion of Turkey’s Cultural Values
Addresses: Fuat paşa Cad. No:18 Sarı Konak Kültür ve Sanatevi/ Kütahya
Phone: +90274 216 33 04 Fax: -
Related NGOs of the element in Bursa/İznik:
5- Association of Research and Development of İznik Tiles and Ceramics
Addresses: F.Murat Hamamı Çini Çarşısı No: 13 İznik/Bursa
Phone: +905356321909 Fax: -
6- İznik Education and Training Foundation
Addresses: Şube- Sahil Yolu Vakıf Sokak. No:13 İznik/Bursa. Merkez- Etiler Mah. Cengiz Topel Cad. Tuğcular Sok. Beşiktaş/İstanbul
Phone: +90 0212 287 32 43 / +90224757 60 25 Fax: +90 212 287 32 47
3- Universities and Research Instıtutes Related to the Element:
Across the country there are 10 Vocational High Schools providing two-year degree on art of çini, 37 Fine Arts Faculty providing education on traditional Turkish handicraft including art of çini and 2 Antique Çini Repair Department.